Sunday, 21 June 2020

KRISHNA PROTESTS AGAINST lNDRA-YAJNA: AN ACCOUNT OF AUTUMN | VISHNU PARVA SECTION - 71 - 016

CHAPTER LXXI

(KRISHNA PROTESTS AGAINST lNDRA-YAJNA: AN ACCOUNT OF AUTUMN)


Krishna about Govardhana giri pooja to elder gopas

VAISHAMPAYANA said: - Hearing the words of the aged milk-men regarding the festivity of Indra, Dāmodara, well informed of Sakra's might, said to him[1] (1).

[1] In this Chapter it will be seen that Krishna attempts to put a stop to Indra-Yajna or a sacrifice in honor of the god of rain. It is evident from the manner in which he preaches against it that he was opposed to lifeless rituals and ceremonials. He exhorts all the people of his clan to believe that every body's calling, on which depends his livelihood, is a god to him. He was not for useless ceremonies and rituals and always tried to present before his country a higher form of faith, freed from the prevailing superstitions. But he introduced it in a very mild form and for this he did not revolutionize the existing modes of things. This his stand against Indra-Yajna, and his introduction of the worship of mountain, forest &c ultimately developed itself into the great religion of Duty which he preached in his afterlife. To worship one's own means of livelihood, when stripped off metaphor, means to perform one's own duty considering it as sacred as the worship of a deity. This incident of introducing a new form of religion also proves his superhuman power. Being a mere boy he produced so great an influence over his people that they left off their established form of religion and followed him.

"We are all milkmen who range in the forest. The precious kine constitute our subsistence. We should therefore worship the kine, the mountains and the forests (2). Cultivation is the means of subsistence to the cultivators, merchandise is to the merchants and the cow is the best means of livelihood to us. This has been laid down by the scholars well-read in the three Vedas (3). The respective profession of each caste is their great God, is worshipful, adorable and beneficial unto them. He, who, benefitted by one, worships another, is visited by two fold calamities in this world, and in the next after death. The fields are protected by cultivation, the forests are preserved by fields and the mountains are supported by forests and these mountains are our only refuge. I have heard that the mountains, which exist in this forest, assume forms at their will. And adopting various shapes they sport in their table-lands (4-6). Sometimes assuming the forms of tigers, the foremost of those having claws or those of lions adorned with manes, they lighten those who devastate the forest and thus protect their respective woods (7). When tribes living in the forest[2] or those obtaining their livelihood through it[3] disfigure a wood, they, with their work of eating up manliness, destroy them in no time (8). The Brāhmanas perform Yajnas wherein the Mantras play an important part, the cultivators should perform a sacrifice in honor of a furrow and we milk-men should celebrate one in honor of the mountains. Therefore we should worship the mountains in the forest (9). Methinks, therefore, O milk-men, that engaged in celebrating a Yajna in honor of the mountains do ye engage in actions after your own hearts either at the foot of a tree or of a mountain (10). Digging wells and setting up sheds in that auspicious place and slaying beasts of sacrifice let the milk-men carry on their festivity. There is no need of holding a discussion over it (11).

[2] The Bheels or other barbarous tribes who live in the forest.

[3] The milk-men or others who obtain their means of livelihood either by tending their kine in the forest or selling the produce of the forest.

Circumambulating that best of mountains embellished with autumnal flowers the kine will again return to Vraja (12). Every one is filled with delight in this charming autumn shorn of clouds, endued with many virtues and abounding in delicious water affording satisfaction to the kine and in grass (13). Somewhere rendered white by blossoming Pryaka flowers and somewhere made dark blue by Bānasanas the forest, abounding in full-grown grass and shorn of peacocks, is appearing greatly beautiful (14). Clear clouds, shorn of water and lightnings, are moving in the sky like a herd of elephants (15). The trees, enveloped with new grown foliage, are as if being pleased by the continual muttering of clouds drawing in new water (16). Having the white cloud for its head-gear, fanned by the swan-like chowries and with the full-moon for its umbrella the sky is shining like a newly installed king (17). After the termination of the rainy season all the tanks and pools are as if smiling with the rows of swans. And as if filled with the cries of Sārasas, they are daily decreasing in size (18). The rivers, flowing towards the ocean having the Chakravākas for their breast, the banks for their waist and the swans for their smiles, are as if going to their husbands (19). The water, beautified by the full blown lilies and the sky crested with stars, as if mock each other in the night (20). Beholding the highly charming forest resonant with the notes of Kraunchas and blued with the ripe Kalama paddy one attains to delight of mind (21). The tanks, pools, lakes and rivers and fields, embellished with blossoming trees, are appearing highly beautiful (22). Copper coloured and dark blue lotuses are appearing in the beauty of new water (23). The peacocks are freed of haughtiness, the sky is divested of clouds, the oceans are full of water and the wind is gradually assuming proportions (24). The earth is appearing as if of many eyes by the feathers cast off by the peacocks after their dancing in the rainy season (25). With her banks full of mud and covered with Kāsa flowers and creepers and abounding in swans and Sārasas the river Yamuna is appearing highly beautiful (26). Ranging in fields filled with corns ripened in proper season and in the forest, the birds, living on corns and water, are emitting notes in excitement (27). The tender corns, on which the clouds poured their watery contents in the rainy season, have grown hardened (28). Casting off his cloudy raiment and illumined by the autumn the moon is, as if, ranging with a delighted heart, in the clear sky (29). Now the kine have been yielding milk in double the quantity, the bulls have become two-fold maddened, the forest has become twice beautiful and the earth has become highly accomplished with corns (30). The luminous bodies, divested of clouds, the water beautified with lotuses, and the mind of men are daily becoming delightful (31). Divested of clouds and shining in autumnal effulgence the sun, of powerful rays, is spreading its lustre on all sides and drawing the water (32). Having excited their respective armies the kings, the protectors of the world, desirous of achieving victory, are proceeding against one another (33). The variegated and charming woods, with the mud dried up and reddened by Vandhujiva flowers, are creating the delight of the mind (34). The blossoming Asana, Saptaparna and Kānchana trees are beautifying the forest (35). Vānāsana, Dantivitapa, Pryaka Svarnaparna, and Ketaki trees have been covered with flowers and the she-owls and black-bees are moving about hither and thither (36). As if assuming the beauty of a harlot the autumnal season is walking in Vraja and cow-sheds filled with the sound of churning rods (37). The foremost of the celestials (Vishnu), having the emblem of Garuda on his flag, was happily sleeping during the rainy season. The deities are now trying to awaken him (38).

O ye milk-men, in this autumn abounding in beautiful corns, we will worship the foremost of mountains, resembling the abode of the wind-god, resorted to by white, red and blue birds, filled with fruits like clouds adorned with the bow of Indra, crested with groves of creepers and trees and adorned with expansive table-lands. We will, in particular, worship the kine (39-41). Adorning the cows with ear-rings, horns, chaplets of peacock feathers, bells hanging around their necks and autumnal flowers, do ye worship them for your well-being. And let the yajna, in honor of the mountain, be undertaken. We will celebrate a yajna in honor of the mountain as Sakra is worshipped by the celestials. And forsooth we will compel you to perform the yajna for the cows. If you have any love for me, and if I am your friend, then do ye all worship the kine. Do not cherish any doubt in this. If you cherish these my conciliating words, you will meet with your well-being. Therefore without questioning its purpose do ye fulfill my words" (42-45).

Source: https://archive.org/details/AProseEnglishTranslationOfHarivamsh

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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அசமஞ்சன் அதிரதன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உபரிசரவசு உல்பணன் ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டூகன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரன் சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாந்தீபனி சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நரகாசுரன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பார்வதி பிரதீபன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரஸேனன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மார்க்கண்டேயர் முசுகுந்தன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வருணன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாயு விகத்ரு விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜராசந்தன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு