Friday 21 February 2020




Janamejaya said:—O Vaishampāyana, do thou describe at length the origin of the gods, Dānavas, Gandharvas, serpents and Rakshasas (1).

Vaishampāyana said:—O king, hear how Daksha created progeny when he was commanded by Swayambhuva, saying "create progeny." (2) The capable Daksha first created his mental offspring—the Rishis, gods, Gandharvas, Asuras, Rākshasas, Yakshas, goblins, Pishāchas, beasts, birds, and reptiles (3). When this his mind-born creation did not multiply, for such was the thought of the intelligent Mahādeva, the Patriarch, thinking again of the multiplication of his creation and desirous of creating progeny by sexual intercourse, married Asniki, the daughter of the Patriarch Virana, engaged in a penance for a son and capable of giving birth to a great race (4–6). Thereupon the energetic Patriarch Daksha begat five thousand sons on Asniki, the daughter of Virana (7). Beholding those great men desirous of multiplying progeny, the celestial saint Nārada, ever fond of carrying news, for their destruction and for his own imprecation, said (8). Afraid of Daksha and his imprecation the ascetic Kaçyapa begat on his daughter the same celestial saint Nārada who had been begotten by Brahmā (9). Nārada was formerly begotten by Brahmā; and then that foremost of celestial saints (Kaçyapa) again begat that best of ascetics on Asniki, daughter of Virana (10). Undoubtedly by him the sons of Daksha, celebrated under the name of Haryaswas were freed from attachment to body through scriptural knowledge and rendered invisible (11). When Daksha, of immeasurable prowess, was ready to destroy Nārada, Parameshti (Brahmā), with leading saints before him, begged him (not to do it) (12). Thereupon Daksha made this contract with Parameshti that his son Nārada would be born as the son of his (Daksha's) daughter (13). Thereupon Daksha gave away his daughter unto Parameshti: and the Rishi, in fear of the imprecation of Daksha, begat Nārada on her (14).

Janamejaya said:—O foremost of the twice-born, I wish to hear truly why Daksha's sons were killed by the great saint Nārada (15).

Vaishampāyana said:—When the highly energetic sons of Daksha called Haryaswas came there with a view to multiply the progeny Nārada said to them (19), "O ye sons of Daksha, how stupid you are all, since you do not know the cause of all and still desire to create progeny; with out knowing him who is in heaven, earth and nether region how do you wish to create progeny?" (17) Hearing his words those descendants of Daksha, without caring for each other, repaired to various directions to see the cause of all (18). Having restrained vital airs, and attained to the pure Brahman they secured emancipation. Even now they have not returned like the rivers from the ocean (19). When the Haryaswas were thus lost sight of, Daksha, the son of Prachetas, capable of creating progeny, again begat one thousand sons on the daughter of Virana (20). When those Shavalashwas were again desirous of multiplying progeny they were addressed by Narada with the self-same words (21). They then spoke amongst themselves, "The great saint Nārada has spoken the just thing. We should follow the footsteps of our brothers; there is no doubt about that (22). Learning the dimension of the earth, we will, at ease and with whole minded attention, create progeny in due order (23)". They, by the same way, repaired to various directions. Even now they have not returned like the rivers from the ocean (24). When the Shavalāshwas too were lost sight of, Daksha, possessed by anger, said to Nārada:—"Do thou meet with destruction and experience the pain of living in the womb (25)". Since then, O king, if a brother issues out in quest of another he meets with destruction. So the learned should not do it (26). Knowing his sons thus exiled and destroyed the Patriarch Daksha again begat sixty daughters on the daughter of Virana. This we have heard (27). O descendant of Kuru, the Patriarch Kaçyapa, the Moon, Dharma and other Rishis took their wives from among those daughters of Daksha (28). Of them Daksha conferred ten on Dharma, thirteen on Kaçyapa, twenty seven on the Moon, four on Arishtanemi, two on Vahuputra, two on Angiras and two on the learned Krisāshwa. Hear from me their names (29–30). Arundhuti, Vasu, Yami, Lamvā, Bhānu, Marutvati, Sankalpa Muhurta, Sādhyā and Vishwā, these ten, O descendant of Bharata, were the wives of Dharma. Hear from me of their offspring (31). Vishwadevas were the sons of Vishwā and Sādhyā gave birth to Sādhyas. Marutvati was the mother of Maruts and Vāsus were the sons of Vasu (32). Bhānus were the sons of Bhānu and the Muhurttas of Muhurtta (33). Gosha was born of Lamvā and Nāgavithi of Yami. Arundhuti gave birth to all the herbs of the earth (34). The Deity of determination, the soul of all, took his birth from Sankalpa and Vrihalamva took his birth from Nāgabitha (35). O king, all the daughters, whom Daksha conferred on the Moon, have been celebrated by the name of Nakshatras or planets in astrology (36). The celestials, who have profuse effulgence before them, were celebrated by the name of eight Vasus. I will mention their names at length (37). Apa, Dhruva, Soma, Dhara, Anila, Anala, Pratyusha, and Pravasha—these eight are known as eight Vasus (38), Apa's sons were Vaitandya, Srānta and Muni. Dhruva's son was the Divine Kāla, the destroyer of creatures (39). Soma's son was the Divine Varchas who begat Varcaaswi. Dhara’s son was Dravina the carrier of sacrificial oblations. He begat on his wife Manoharā, Sishira, Prāna and Ramana (40). Anila's wife was Shivā whose son was Manojava. Anila, whose course is not known, had two sons (41). Agni's son Kumara shone in the thickets of Sara grass. His names are Shakha, Vishakha, Naigameya and Prishthaja (42). And on account of his being an offspring of Kirtikās[1] he was called Kartikeya: With the fourth part of his energy Agni created Skanda and Sanat Kumar (43).

[1] They are nymphs and the nurses of Kumara.

Pratyusha's son was the Rishi Devala whose two sons were forgiving and observant of hard austerities (44). Shorn of attachment Vrihaspati's sister, the beautiful Yogasiddhā, who led a life of celibacy, ranged all over the earth (45). She became the wife of the eighth Vasu Prabhasa. The noble Patriarch Vishwakarma was born of her (46). He made chariots for the celestials, was their architect, the maker of thousands of fine things and dresses and the foremost of artizans. Adopting his art as their profession mankind are now making their livelihoods (47-48). By the grace of Siva and having her heart purified by virtue of asceticism, Surabhi gave birth, through Kaçyapa, to the eleventh Rudra (49). O descendant of Bharata, Ajaikapāt, Ahir-Budhna, Rudrashwa, Tasta, Srimān and Vishwarupa, those were the highly illustrious sons of Tastu (50). Hara, Vahurupa, Tryamvaka, Aparājita, Vrishākapi, Sambhu, Kapardi, Raivata, Mrigavyadha, Sarpa and Kapāli—these are known as the eleven Rudras who lord over the three worlds (51-52). O foremost of Bhāratas, in Purānas, hundreds, of such Rudras of incomparable energy, have been mentioned who have spread over the mobile and immobile creation (53). O foremost of Bhāratas, hear from me of the wives of Kaçyapa who have spread over all the worlds: They are Aditi, Diti, Dana, Aristha, Suravā, Surabhi, Vinatā, Tāmrā, Krodhavashā, Irā, Kadru, Muni and Swasā; hear now of their offspring (54-55). In the previous Manwantara they were twelve leading celestials. In the Manwantara of Vaivaswata they used to address one another by the name of Tushita (56). During the reign of the present highly illustrious Manu Chakshusha, they all assembled together for the benefit of all creatures and said (57). "Let us all enter into the womb of Aditi to be born in the Manwantara of Vaivaswata and we will attain well-being (58)".

Vaishampāyana said:—Having said this during the Manwantara of Manu Chakshusha, they were begotten on Aditi, daughter of Daksha by Kagyapa the son of Marichi (59). Sakra and Vishnu were also born of her. Besides, O descendant of Bharata, Aryamā, Dhātā, Twastā, Pushā, Vivashmān, Savitā, Mitra, Varuna, Ansha, and the highly effulgent Bhaga—these eight were also born of Aditi; so it is said (60-61). Those who passed by the name of Tushita during the Manwantara of Chakshusha were known as twelve Adityas during the Manwantara of Vaivaswata (62). The twenty seven wives of Soma, observant of vows and of incomparable energy, gave birth to luminous bodies as their offspring (63). Arishthanemi's wives had sixteen sons. The learned Patriarch Vahuputra had four sons:—Vidyut (lightning), Açani (thunder-bolt), Megha (cloud) and Indradhanu (rain-bow) (64). The best of works Riks originated from Pratyangiras and the celestial saint Krishāswa begat deities presiding over various celestial weapons (65).

O child, these deities take their births again after a thousand Yugas. Of them thirty three[2] take birth of their own accord (66). As in this world the sun rises and sets, so O king, the origin and disappearance of all these gods are also mentioned. They appear and disappear at every Yuga (67-68).

[2] The thirty three gods are:—8 Vasus, 11, Rudras, 12 Adityas, Brahma and Indra.

Kaçyapa begat on Diti two sons, the powerful Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha. This we have heard (69). He had a daughter (also) by name Sinhikā whom Viprachitti espoused. Her highly powerful sons were celebrated by the name of Saihinkeyas. It is said, O king, that their number was ten thousand (70). They had, O thou having mighty arms, hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons. Hear now from me of the children of Hiranykashipu (71). He had four sons of well-known prowess—Anurhāda, Hrāda, and the energetic Pralhāda (72). And Sanghrāda was the fourth. Hrāda's son was Hrada. Sangrada's sons were Sunda and Nisunda (73). Anurahada's sons were Ayu, Sivi and Kāla. Virochana was Pralhada's son; and his son was Vali (74). O king, Vali had a hundred sons, of whom Vāna was the eldest. Dhritarashtra, Surya, Chandramā, Indratapana, Kumbhanabha, Gardhabhaksha, Kukshi and others were their names. Of them Vāna was the eldest, powerful and a beloved votary of Paçupati (75–76). In the previous Kalpa, Vāna, having propitiated the Divine Lord of Uma, prayed to him for the boon "I shall remain by your side." (77). Vāna begat on his wife Lohita, a son, by name Indradamana. Hundreds and thousands of Asuras yielded to his power (78). The five sons of Hiranyaksha were learned and highly powerful—they were Jarjara, Sakuni, Bhutasantāpana, the powerful Mahānābha and Kālanabha. Hundred sons of dreadful prowess were born to Danu. They were all ascetic and endued with great energy. Hear their names in order of precedence (79–80). Dwimurdhā, Shakuni, Shankushira, Vibhu, Shankukarna, Virava, Gaveshtha, Dundubhi, Ayomukha, Shamvara, Kapila, Vāmana Marichi, Maghavāna, Ira, Vrika, Vikshovana, Ketu, Ketuvirya, Shatahrada, Indrajit, Satyajit, Vajranābha, the powerful Mahānābha, Kālanabha Ekachakra, the highly powerful and mighty-armed Taraka, Vaishvanara, Pulomā, Victravana, Mahāsura, Swarbhanu, Vrishaparva, the great Asura Tuhunda, Sukhshma, Nichandra, Urnanabha, Mahāgiri, Asilomā, Sukeshi, Shatha, Valaka, Mada, Gaganamurdha, the great ascetic Kumbhanābha, Pramada, Daya, Kupatha, the energetic Hayagriva, Vaisripa, Virupaksha, Supatha, Hara, Ahara, Hiranyakashipu, Salya and the energetic Viprachitta—these sons of Danu were begotten by Kaçyapa. Amongst those highly powerful Dinavas Viprachitta was the head (81-89). O king, I cannot enumerate the offspring, sons and grandsons, of all these Dānavas (90). Sarvana's daughter was Prabhā, Puloma's daughter was Sachi, Hayasira's daughter was Upadānavi and Vrishaparva's daughter was Sharmishthā (91).

Vaishwānara had two daughters Pulomā and Kalikā-they were both highly powerful, gave birth to many children and were the wives of Kaçyapa, the son of Marichi (92). They gave birth to sixty thousand Dānavas; of them fourteen thousand lived in the city of Hiranya (93). Being observant of rigid austerities Kaçyapa begat highly powerful Dānavas called Poulamas and Kālakeyās (94). Those living in the city of Hiranya were placed by Brahmā above destruction even by the gods. They were afterwards killed by Savyasachi in battle (95). Nahusha was Prabhā's son, Jayanta was Sachi's son, Sarmisthā gave birth to Puru and Upadānavi gave birth to Dushmanta (96). Viprachitta begat on Singhikā another class of highly dreadful Dānavas (97). By the union of Daity and Danava energies they grew of dreadful prowess. Those thirteen highly powerful Dānavas were celebrated by the name of Sainghikeyas (98). They were the powerful Aisha, Nabha, Vala, Vatāpi, Namuchi, Ilvala, Khasrima, Anjika, Naraka, Kālanābha, Shara, Potarana, and the energetic Vajranābha (99-100). Of them Rāhu, the represser of the sun and the moon, was the eldest. Hrāda had two sons, Suka and Tuhunda (101). Sunda begat on Tāraka a son by name Mārachi, another (by name) Sivamana, energetic like a celestial (102). All these Dānavas, multiplying the race of Danu, were great. Their sons and grandsons were hundreds and thousands in number (103). The noble Nivātakavachas endued with great asceticism were born in the race of the Daitya Sanghrāda(104). Those Danavas, living in the city of Manimati, begat three Koti offspring. The gods could not destroy them and they were slain by Arjuna (105). It is said that Tāmrā gave birth to six highly powerful daughters—Kake, Sweni, Bhāsi, Sugrivi, Suchi, and Gidhrika (106). Kāki gave birth to crows, Uluki to owls, Sweni to Swena birds, Bhāsi to Bhāsa birds, Gidhri to vultures, Suchi to waterfowls and Sugrivi to horses, camels and asses. Such is the description of Tāmrā's family (107-108). Vinata had two sons, Aruna and Garuda. Suparna, the foremost of birds, grew immensely powerful by his own action (109). Surasā gave birth to a thousand highly powerful serpents and high-souled sky-rangers of many heads (110). Powerful, and many headed Nagas endued with immeasurable energy, the offspring of Kadru, were born as being subject to Suparna (111). Amongst them Sesha, Vāsuki, Takshaka, Airavata, Mahāpadma, Kamvala, Aswatara, Ekapatra, Shankha, Karko taka, Dhananjāya, Mohāneela, Mahākarna, Dhritarashtra, Valāhaka, Kuhara, Pushpapangstra, Durmukha, Sumukha, Shankhapala, Kapilā, Vāmana, Nahusha, Sangkaroma and Manu were the heads. Fourteen thousand sons and grand sons of these dreadful serpents were devoured by Garuda, living on serpents. Know this class to be full of anger. All animals having teeth, those born on land, birds and those produced by water are the offspring of Dhara. Surabhi gave birth to kine and buffaloes (112-117). Ira produced trees, creepers, groves and all kinds of grasses and Khasa gave birth to Yakshas, Rakshas, Munis and Apsarās (118). Aristha gave birth to the powerful Gandharvas of unmitigated prowess and the mobile and immobile creation is said to have originated from Kaçyapa (119). Hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons have been born to them. Such was the creation, O my child, in Swarochisha Manwantara (120). I shall now describe to you the creation of the Patriarch Brahmā who offered oblation to fire at the long-extending sacrifice of Varuna in Vaivaswata Manwantara (121). Formerly when seven Rishis were procreated by his mind the grand-father considered them as his sons (122).

O descendant of Bharata, when the conflict between the gods and demons raged on, Diti, who had her sons slain, began to propitiate Kaçyapa (123). Being duly adored by her and propitiated, Kaçyapa pleased her by giving a boon. She too prayed for a highly powerful son for killing Indra. That great ascetic, when thus begged, conferred on her the same boon (124-125). Having conferred on her the boon without the least anxiety the son of Marichi said:—"If being pure and observant of vows you can hold your conception for one hundred years you will give birth to such a son as will slay Indra (126–127)." O monarch, saying so be it and being pure Diti obtained her conception from her that great ascetic husband (128). Thinking of one of the leadings gods of immeasurable power and infusing energy which the immortals even can not destroy he knew Diti. Then that one of great vows repaired to a hilly region for carrying on penances (129-130). From that day the slayer of Pāka (Indra) began to seek her fault. One day before hundred years were complete Diti, without washing her feet, lay down on her bed. Beholding her impure state the king of gods entered into her abdomen and made her asleep (131-132).

Then the holder of thunderbolt sundered the embryo into seven pieces. Cut into pieces with the thunderbolt the embryo began to cry (133). Sakra again and again prevented him saying "Do not cry! Do not cry!" The embryo was then divided into seven pieces. Indra too, the slayer of enemies, worked up with anger, again cut every piece into seven portions with his thunder-bolt. From them originated the gods called Maruts, O foremost of Bharatas (134-135). Because they were addressed by Maghavan (saying "Do not weep" Ma ruda) so the Maruts were born and they all became of help to the holder of thunder-bolt (136). When creatures thus multiplied, O Janamejaya, Hari consoled that foremost of gods of immeasurable energy, and then conferred kingdoms on various Patriarchs of whom Prithu was first installed as king (137-138). That Hari is the heroic person Vishnu, Jishnu, the Patriarch, the king of rains and is the air in his visible form. The whole universe is His (139). O foremost of Bharatas, he, who is informed of this creation of creatures, and he who reads or hears the auspicious birth of the Maruts, has no fear of being born again in this world—what of fear in the next world (140)?

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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அங்கிரஸ் அசமஞ்சன் அதிதி அதிரதன் அநிருத்தன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அருந்ததி அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜபார்ஷன் அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆரியா தேவி ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உத்தவர் உபரிசரவசு உமை உல்பணன் உஷை ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டாகர்ணன் கண்டூகன் கதன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குணவதி கும்பாண்டன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் கைடபன் கோடவி சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்ணன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்யபாமா சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரவதி சந்திரன் சம்பரன் சரஸ்வதி சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாத்யகி சாந்தீபனி சாம்பன் சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திரலேகை சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுக்ரன் சுசீமுகி சுநாபன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் சௌதி டிம்பகன் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதி திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துர்வாசர் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நந்தி நரகாசுரன் நரசிம்மன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பத்ரன் பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பலி பாணன் பார்வதி பானு பானுமதி பிரதீபன் பிரத்யும்னன் பிரபாவதி பிரமர்த்தனன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரவரன் பிரஸேனன் பிரஹலாதன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி பௌண்டரகன் மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மனு மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மாயாவதி மார்க்கண்டேயர் மித்ரஸஹர் முசுகுந்தன் முரு முருகன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வராகம் வருணன் வஜ்ரநாபன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாமனன் வாயு விகத்ரு விசக்ரன் விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விப்ருது வியாசர் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைசம்பாயனர் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜயந்தன் ஜராசந்தன் ஜனமேஜயன் ஜனார்த்தனன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஜ்வரம் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஸ்ரீதேவ ஸ்வேதகர்ணன் ஹம்சன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு ஹிரண்யாக்ஷன்