Saturday 10 October 2020




Krishna and Satyabhama

Vaishampāyana said:—O Bharata, Nārāyana once more affectionately addressed the chaste and beautiful Satyabhāma who was thus suffering under the influence of jealousy and resentment, in the following manner (1).

The auspicious god said:—O lotus-eyed one! sorrow seems to burn through all my limbs (at seeing thee in this plight). What is the cause that has renderd thee so much aggrieved? (2). O thou beautiful in all thy parts, if there is no harm and if it is proper for thy affectionate husband to hear it, I entreat thee, on my life, to reveal to me the cause of thy grief (3).

Then Satyabhāmā seated with her countenance cast down towards the earth thus spoke to her husband, ever truthful in vows, in a voice choked with the vapour of grief (4). "O lotus-eyed one, O destroyer of Kesin, O bestower of honor it was thy ownself that established my honor and prosperity in days gone—and that honor and that prosperity have now become famous in the worlds (5). That I am most beloved of thee among all thy wives—is what prompted me to raise my head with pride above all others, O God (6). But, my maids have told me as they have heard it others say, that to-day I have been laughed at by my rival (co-wives) and by other people also (7). I hear that the Parijata flower that Nārada gave thee, thou hast given to thy dear one, totally neglecting my (poor) self (8). That thy love and thy regard for her is supreme, thou hast given unmistakable expression to—by presenting her with that best of all precious things (the Parijata flower) (9). Narada also eulogised her in thy presence, and thou surely wert also gratified having heard that eulogy bestowed on thy dear wife (10). But supposing Narada had some reason for praising her in thy presence, why was it that the name of this unfortunate one was uttered in that connection (11)? O Lord, if I am to repent for having tasted the (sweet) liquor of thy love, it is better I should have nothing to do with it? Be kindly pleased to accord me thy permission (12). O lotus-eyed one, I could not have believed even in my dream, that thou hast honored some body else more than myself; but alas, it has come to pass in real life even before the eyes of others (13). It may be that the sage Narada of incomparable powers has conceived a love for her (Rukshmini), but O lord, the cause of my grief in this, is thy presence in the scene (14). Thou hast told me that people live for the sake of honor only,–so, thus dishonored, I do not desire to live any longer (15). My source of protection has been turned to-day into my source of fear. He that used to protect me in every-thing does not do so to-day (16), Alas, what course shall I pursue, O Lord, being thus abandoned by thee! Surely renounced by thee, I shall be reduced to the condition of the white lily[1] (17). Have I done to day something disliked by the gods out of foolishness in consequence of which, O bestower of honour I have incurred thy dislike, although I used to be thy chosen one (18). How could I who was thy beloved wife, but now discarded, look upon this Raibataka Hills decked with the flowers of the spring (19)? Now that I have been the object of thy hate, how could I, unfortunate one, venture to breathe the pure breeze (of this place) ringing with the sweet notes of the cuckoo and fraught with fragrance of the flowers (20). How could I, who did sport on thy lap inside the waters of this ocean, again glance at it, O lord, in this my unhappy condition (21)? Thou didst tell me in days gone by,–'O daughter of Satrajit, know that there is no wife of mine dearer to me than thyself'—What of that assurance! Or who cares to remember it[2] (22)! My mother-in-law used to look upon me with much regard and pleasure—but unfortunate lady queen as she was,—she has been contemptuously treated by thee (23). O Lord, what then is the good of this thy hidden and unmanifest love for me, if thou dost not even deign to reckon me among thy common wives (24)? O subduer of thy foes, I did not know thee hence-before to be so much of a cheat and a knave; but now I have come to know thee as fickle, deceiving, and partial to my rival (co-wife)[3] (25). I have read thy innermost and secret thoughts, O thief, by thy articulations and thy features and signs, although thou triest to conceal them from me; thou knave, thou partisan of my rival, it is thy tongue only that is honeyed, but thou art too guileful" (26).

[1] The white lily withers away with the dawn of day, when the beams of the moon cease fall on it. Kumadbati may have another meaning. There was a queen of a certain king Aja of that name, who died before her husband.

[2] Another interpretation has been put on this part of the Sloka, namely, "who would remain by me when I am gone—!" This seems to be far fetched.

[3] An attempt has been made in the commentary of Sridhara to attribute an allegorical meaning to this Sloka, which tries to establish the identity of Krishna with the God-head. This though ingeneous, is not suited to the context.

When the resentful daughter of Satrajit, influenced by jealousy had thus spoken, the god-like Krishna consoling her addressed her in the following manner (27). "Say not so, O lotus-eyed one, thou dearest ruler of my heart! what shall I tell thee more my darling;—know me to be thine entirely (28). There is no doubt that in order to please me the sage Narada of unimpeachable deeds gave that Parijata flower to her (Rukshmini) in my presence, merely out of generous feelings or regard for her; (but I did not give it with my own hands). O thou of pure smiles, be consoled; forgive me this my first and only transgression (29-30). If thou desirest to have Parijata flowers, O resentful darling, I promise, O thou of delicate waist, to give it to thee—this I speak in all earnestness (31). (What to speak of a single flower), I shall fetch that best of all trees namely the Parijata tree itself, from the gardens of paradise, and keep it in thy mansion as long as thou chosest (32)."

Thus spoken to by Hari, that lady so deeply attached to him said:—"O infallible one, if thou canst bring that tree down here, my resentment shall leave me,—and it shall then be to my great gratification. O Adhokshaja, for then I shall be the head and the best-honored among all thy wives" (33–34). The divine slayer of Madhu—that incomparable being, the origin of the world, beyond the reach of decay, then said to her:—"so be it, then; this shall be my foremost concern" (35).

Vaishampāyana said:—O victor of large armies, thus spoken to by the auspicious Krishna, Satyabhama, who was held in high esteem by the pious and who was deeply attached to the slayer of Kansa, became highly gratified (36). The lord of the world, the the lord of all, the protector of all things, and the bestower of all desires on the good, then bathed himself and discharged all his necessary duties (37). O king that lord then remembered that best of sages namely Narada who, as soon as he was remembered, came there having performed his ablutions in the waters of the mighty main (38). O ruler of men! then that refuge of the pious, Krishna, attended by Satyabhama, duly worshipped Narada who had reached there (according to a fiat of his will) (39). The daughter of Satrajit herself washed the feet of that sage; and the lord Krishna himself then poured the water from a golden pitcher (40). When the sage had seated himself comfortably, that preceptor of the worlds the high-souled Keshava offered him with all respect and carefulness a dish of rice boiled in milk (or delicious edibles) (41). The highly intelligent sage, that best of all orators then partook of the dish with great regard and relish thus hospitably offered him by the creator of the worlds (42). O lord! satisfied with the hearty meal, Narada having rinsed his mouth, bestowed many a blessing on Keshava, who also accepted them with much gratification of the mind (43). Thereafter Narada stretching his wet right hand thus spoke to the divinely beautiful daughter of Satrajit, who was then bowing down to him (44):—"Be thou as faithful and devoted to thy husband, for all future periods, as thou art even now, O queen! Be thou also attended with special good fortune in future through the powers of my religious observances" (45). Thus spoken to by that foremost of sages, that most beloved wife of Hari, Satyabhama rose up, O king (from her bending attitude) filled with immense delight (46).

Thereafter Krishna that most intelligent personage of immeasurable powers, ate the remnants of the sage's dish having at first obtained his permission (47). O Bharata, Satyabhama also finishing there all necessary rites gladly entered her inner appartments with the permission of her illustrious husband (48). Then after a while at the command of Krishna she again came out, and having saluted the high-souled sage with her head, seated herself by Krishna's side (49). Thus having (comfortably) sat for a while, Narada said to Krishna:—"O Adhokshaja, with thy leave I now intend to go to the regions of Sakra (50). The gods, the Gandharbhas and the Apsaras there will this day sing songs of praise to that primary divinity Ishana, having at first bowed down to him in homage true (51). In the residence of Indra, O lord, every month there take place such worship and homage-giving to that god of gods (Siva), and Gandharbha dances in his honor (52). That god of gods accompanied by his wife Uma, and attended by his followers, witnesseth unseen those festivities celebrated with much reverence by that foremost of immortals, the destroyer of mountains (53). I was invited there yesterday; I only came here, O highly effulgent one, to present thee with that flower of the beautiful Parijata, that king of all trees (54). This flower of that best of all trees, though it is a luxury to be enjoyed only by the gods, I brought it, O lord, for thy enjoyment only (55). O lotus-eyed one! that tree is very dear to Sachi (Indra's wife), and duly worshipped by her every day, it brings her a chain of (unending) prosperity (56). Pleased with the religious observances of Aditi, the illustrious Kasyapa created the great Parijata tree in order to enable her to accomplish the vow known as Punyaka (57). In days gone by the highly powerful Kasyapa that receptacle of all powers begot by austerities, having been much gratified with the services of Aditi, desired to bestow a boon on her (58). Thereupon that very fortunate lady said:—'O foremost of sages, confer on me such a boon by virtue of which I may be decorated with all kinds of ornaments at my will, that I may have the qualities of singing and dancing at my command and that, O mighty possessor of ascetic wealth, I may ever remain youthful; confer on me the boon that I may be always free from all impurities and sorrow, and that I may be ever devoted to my husband and to the performance of religious deeds (59-61)'.

"Thereupon for pleasing his wife Aditi, he created the Parijata tree covered with ever-fragrant flowers capable of bestowing all desires (62). The tree had three branches to be always seen and it gladdened the heart of all onlookers. All sorts of flowers are to be seen on this mighty tree (63). Some beautiful damsels deck themselves with flowers like these; some again beautify themselves with parti-coloured ones, and others with jems and jewels (that also grow on this tree) (64). Taking out the essense of the Mandara tree, Kasyapa created this one; and therefore this best of trees has reached the height of excellence (has been reckoned as the foremost of all trees) (65). The blessed Aditi then binding Kasyapa to that tree gave him over to me, in order to accomplish the Punyaka vow and earn prosperity and good fortune therefrom (66). Aditi gave Kasyapa over to me with his neck bound to the Parijata tree with a garland of flowers, for the fulfilment of her Punyaka vow (67). That possessor of ascetic wealth was afterwards released by me on payment of proper ransom. Similarly Indra was given to me by his wife for the furtherance of her prosperity (68). In this way Soma was given away by Rohini, and Kuvera, the lord of wealth by Riddhi. Thus there is no doubt that the Parijata tree is capable of conferring much prosperity (69). It is called Parijata as it grows on the other side (Para) of the river Vishnupadi—and this is styled the Mandara for it bears the Mandara flower (70). As men did say—'What tree is this?'—not exactly knowing what it was, this mighty tree is called Kobidara (71). The excellent tree that produces this excellent flower is known by the several names, Mandara, Kobidara and Parijata"(72).


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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அங்கிரஸ் அசமஞ்சன் அதிதி அதிரதன் அநிருத்தன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அருந்ததி அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜபார்ஷன் அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆரியா தேவி ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உத்தவர் உபரிசரவசு உமை உல்பணன் உஷை ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டாகர்ணன் கண்டூகன் கதன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குணவதி கும்பாண்டன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் கைடபன் கோடவி சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்ணன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்யபாமா சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரவதி சந்திரன் சம்பரன் சரஸ்வதி சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாத்யகி சாந்தீபனி சாம்பன் சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திரலேகை சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுக்ரன் சுசீமுகி சுநாபன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் சௌதி டிம்பகன் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதி திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துர்வாசர் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நந்தி நரகாசுரன் நரசிம்மன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பத்ரன் பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பலி பாணன் பார்வதி பானு பானுமதி பிரதீபன் பிரத்யும்னன் பிரபாவதி பிரமர்த்தனன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரவரன் பிரஸேனன் பிரஹலாதன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி பௌண்டரகன் மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மனு மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மாயாவதி மார்க்கண்டேயர் மித்ரஸஹர் முசுகுந்தன் முரு முருகன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வராகம் வருணன் வஜ்ரநாபன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாமனன் வாயு விகத்ரு விசக்ரன் விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விப்ருது வியாசர் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைசம்பாயனர் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜயந்தன் ஜராசந்தன் ஜனமேஜயன் ஜனார்த்தனன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஜ்வரம் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஸ்ரீதேவ ஸ்வேதகர்ணன் ஹம்சன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு ஹிரண்யாக்ஷன்