Monday 14 September 2020




Ancient Dwaraka

Vaishampayana said:—Thereupon when the sun rose in the clear morning, Hrishikesha, the descendant of Yadu, having performed his morning ablution and sat for some time at the outskirt of the forest, began to survey it for finding out a site where he would build a fortress. The principal members of the Yudu race followed him (1–2). Thereafter in an auspicious day under the auspices of the planet Rohini he offered immense presents to the Brāhmanas and made them perform benedictory rites. He then commenced the work of the building of the fort. Thus when the construction of the fort was taken in hand, like unto Indra addressing the gods, the lotus-eyed slayer of Keshi, the foremost of creators, said to the Yadavas (3–4). "O ye Yādavas, behold the site that I have selected like unto the very abode of the gods. I have also selected the name under which it will be celebrated on earth (5). I am laying out courtyards, promenades, well-levelled roads and inner appartments, all those marks, for which this city of mine will be celebrated on earth by the name of Dwāravati like unto Indra's Amarāvti (6-7). Taking Ugrasena before you and putting impediments in the ways of your enemies do you enjoy here shorn of anxiety like the celestials (8). Let all of you take lands for building houses; let gardens and crossings of four roads be laid out and let a survey of roads and walls be taken (9). Let artizans, expert in building houses and masons be sent round the country."

Thus accosted the Yādavas gladly selected sites for building their own houses. O king, some of the Yadavas engaged in measuring their own lands with ropes and some of them began to worship the tutelary deity by adorning the Brahmanas on that auspicious day.

Thereupon the high-minded Govinda said to the masons:—"Do ye build for me a temple for my tutelary deity, well laid out with courtyards and roads" (10-14). Having said "So be it" to the mighty-armed Krishna, the masons collected all the materials for building the fort and began to lay out the gate and the boundary line. Temples, in proper places, were built for Brahmā, the god of sacrifices, Indra, the presiding deities of fire and water and other gods. They then constructed the four gates of the temples (namely Shudrāksha, Aindra, Bhallāta and Pushpadantāka.) Thus when the houses of the high-souled Yadavas were constructed, Mādhava thought of laying out the city very soon. Thereupon there arose by accident a pure intellect in his mind conducive to the well-being of the Yadavas and of the city, by which, he could soon lay out the city. (He thought) that Prajāpati's son, the powerful Viswakarmā, the foremost of architects, would construct the city. Thereupon, seated in a solitary place with his face directed towards the celestial region Krishna thought of Viswakarmā, in his mind, so that he might come there (15–21). In the meantime the highly intelligent celestial architect, Viswakarma, the foremost of gods, came there and stood before Krishna (22).

Viswakarma said:—"O Vishnu of firm vows, despatched speedily by the king of gods, this thy servant has arrived here; what command am I to carry out (23)? O god, thou art adorable unto me as the grand-father (Brahmā) and the three-eyed deity (Siva). O lord, there is no difference amongst the three (24). O thou of large arms, do thou gladly issue command to me as thou dost order the three worlds (25)."

Hearing the humble words of Viswakarma, Keshava, the foremost of Yudus and the slayer of Kansa, replied, in incomparable words (26):—"O foremost of gods, you were also present there and listened to our counsels held in private for the behoof of gods. You are now to build a house for me here (27). O you of firm vows, do you build a city here for manifesting my own self and decorate it with houses befitting my power (28). You are an expert, O you of great intellect; what shall I tell you more. Build for me such a city that it may be celebrated on earth like Amarāvati; you are to build here such a house for me as I have in the celestial region so that the mortals may see the beauty of my city and of the Yadu race (29–30)."

Thus accosted the intelligent Viswakarmā said to Krishna of unwearied actions, the destroyer of the enemies of the celestials (31). "O lord, I shall do all that thou hast ordered. But thy city will not sufficiently accommodate such a number of men. So very extensive should be thy city that even the four oceans, in their full forms, may range here (32–33). O foremost of Purusas, if the ocean, of his own accord, gives a little more room then thy city may turn highly extensive (34)."

Krishna, the foremost of orators, had already settled this. Therefore thus spoken to by the celestial architect he said to the ocean, the lord of rivers (35):—"O ocean, if you have any respect for me, then withdraw thy form in the water extending over twelve yojanas (36). If you give room, this city, abounding in wealth and enjoyments, will be able to afford accommodation to my huge army" (37). Hearing the words of Krishna, the ocean, the lord of rivers, offered him his bed, resorting to his yoga power. Observing the respect shown to Govinda by the ocean and the site for building the city Vishwakarma was highly pleased (38–39). Thereupon Vishwakarmā said to Krishna, the descendant of Yadu:—"From even this very day you will settle down in the city. O lord, I had already made a plan of this most excellent city in my mind. So in no time it will be decorated with the rows of houses (40-41). This charming city will be like the hump of the earth on account of its beautiful gateways, gates and upper-storied rooms" (42). Thereupon having constructed that city in the region liked by the gods he built the inner appartment of Krishna consisting of bathing houses (43). Thus by Viswakarma's mental effort that beautiful Vaishnava city, by name Dwarkāvati, was built (44). That city was properly protected by doors, adorned with most excellent walls, girt by ditches, filled with palaces, beautiful men and women, traders and various articles of merchandise. And although it was established on earth, it appeared like one ranging in the sky. It was adorned with pools, streamlets of pure water and with gardens. It was covered on all sides like a damsel of spacious eyes. It had prosperous court-yards, high edifices stricken by clouds, many clear public roads and streets for carriages. As Indra's city beautifies the celestial region, so that city, prosperous with all sorts of jems, adorned the ocean on earth (45-49). That city, a beautiful field for heroes, that creates envy in the hearts of the neighbouring kings, covered even the sky with its palaces (50). That city was filled with the noise of people hailing from the various kingdoms of earth and the air was saturated with the water of the waves of the ocean (51). With its charming sea-side and gardens that beautiful city Dwarkā, delightful to the females, shone like the welkin studded with stars (52). That city was encircled by walls of sun-like and golden lustre, was filled with golden houses and gates like white clouds and was adorned with palaces. At some places the high roads were full of high palaces (54). As the moon lights up the sky, so Krishna, the enhancer of the joy of the Yadavas, encircled by his own people, began to live in that celestial city abounding in jewels and built by Viswakarmā (55). Having laid out that city resembling that of the celestials and been honored by Govinda the Divine Architect repaired to the region of gods (56).

Thus when the city was laid out Krishna, who was conversant with the knowledge of Spirit, felt a desire of gratifying his own people, who were poor, with profuse riches (57). Thereupon in one night the powerful Upendra invited the foremost of Nidhis, Sankha, who was an attendant of the god of riches Vaishravana, to his own house. As desired by Keshava the lord of Dwāravati, Sankha came to him. As he used to respect Vaishravana, Sankha, humbly and with folded hands, bowed to him and said:—"O lord, I am a guard of treasures of the gods. O descendant of Yadu, O thou of large arms, tell me what command of thine I am to carry out (58-61)" Hearing this Hrishikesha said to that best of Guhyakas Sankha:—"Give enough of riches to those men of my city who have little wealth. I do not like to see any man in this city unfed, lean, dirty and poor and nor do I wish to hear any man cry out 'Give me some thing' (62–63)".

Vaishampāyana:—In order to satisfy Keshava's order Sankha, the foremost of Kuvera's attendants, ordered them to shower heaps of wealth in every house of Dwāravati and they accordingly did so. Therefore there remained no man poor, or of limited means (64–65). Thereupon that Divine Purusha, ever doing good by the Yādavas, sent for the (wind god) Vayu, the vital air of animals, who, appearing before Gādādhara, seated alone, said "O god, I am quick-coursing and can go everywhere. What shall I do for thee? O sinless one, as I am an emissary of the gods, so I am yours". Hearing this the mystic Purusha Krishna said to Vayu, the life of the universe, present there in his own form:—"Go to the gods and their king and offering them my respects beg of them the assembly Hall Sudharmā and bring it to Dwarkā (66–71). O Vāyu, these pious Yādavas, endued with prowess, will enter into it; therefore do not bring the false one; for that undecaying assembly hall only, capable of going and assuming forms at will, will be able to accommodate these god-like Yādavas (72–73)." Hearing the words of Krishna of unwearied actions, Vāyu, in his course fleet like the mind, repaired to the celestial region and communicated to the gods Keshava's complements and request. And then taking the assembly-hall Sudharmā he returned on earth (74-75). Thereupon presenting to the pious and energetic Krishna that Sudharmā hall the wind-god disappeared (76). As it was placed in the land of celestials for the gods so that Sudharmā hall was placed by Keshava in Dwaravati for the leading Yadavas (77). Thus with divine, earthly and watery articles the eternal and intelligent Hari decorated the city of Dwāravati like unto his own wife (78). Thereupon having fixed the limits of the city the emperor Ugrasena placed in their proper places the commanders of armies and the heads of clans. He then settled in their respective places the priest Sāndipani, the commander-in-chief Anadhristhi, the foremost of ministers Vikadru, and the ten elderly persons headed by Udhava, always engaged in Yadava's works. Of the car-warriors the mighty car-warrior Dāruka was appointed Keshava's charioteer and, Satyaki, the foremost of warriors, the commander of his army (79–82).

Having made these arrangements for his city, the blameless Krishna, the creator of the world, began to live happily on earth along with the Yadavas. A few days after with Keshava's consent Baladeva acquired the good-natured daughter of Revata, by name Revati (83-84).


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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அங்கிரஸ் அசமஞ்சன் அதிதி அதிரதன் அநிருத்தன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அருந்ததி அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜபார்ஷன் அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆரியா தேவி ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உத்தவர் உபரிசரவசு உமை உல்பணன் உஷை ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டாகர்ணன் கண்டூகன் கதன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குணவதி கும்பாண்டன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் கைடபன் கோடவி சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்ணன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்யபாமா சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரவதி சந்திரன் சம்பரன் சரஸ்வதி சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாத்யகி சாந்தீபனி சாம்பன் சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திரலேகை சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுக்ரன் சுசீமுகி சுநாபன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் சௌதி டிம்பகன் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதி திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துர்வாசர் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நந்தி நரகாசுரன் நரசிம்மன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பத்ரன் பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பலி பாணன் பார்வதி பானு பானுமதி பிரதீபன் பிரத்யும்னன் பிரபாவதி பிரமர்த்தனன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரவரன் பிரஸேனன் பிரஹலாதன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி பௌண்டரகன் மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மனு மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மாயாவதி மார்க்கண்டேயர் மித்ரஸஹர் முசுகுந்தன் முரு முருகன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வராகம் வருணன் வஜ்ரநாபன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாமனன் வாயு விகத்ரு விசக்ரன் விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விப்ருது வியாசர் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைசம்பாயனர் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜயந்தன் ஜராசந்தன் ஜனமேஜயன் ஜனார்த்தனன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஜ்வரம் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஸ்ரீதேவ ஸ்வேதகர்ணன் ஹம்சன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு ஹிரண்யாக்ஷன்