Thursday, 23 April 2020




துஷ்யந்தன் சகுந்தலை

VAISHAMPAYANA said: - The invincible king Richeyu had none to equal him. His wife was Ivalanā, the daughter of Takshaka (1). That sainty queen gave birth to the saintly emperor Matināra. He had three highly pious sons (2). Of them the first was Tangsu, the second Pratiratha and the youngest was Suvāhu. He had another well-known daughter by name Gouri who was the mother of Māndhāta (3). They were all well-read in the Vedas, conversant with the knowledge of Brahman, truthful, well-versed in the use of arms, powerful and skillful in war-fare (4). O king, Pratiratha's son was Kanwa whose son was Medhātithi. From him the twice-born ones derived the family of Kānyāyana (5). O Janamejaya, he had a daughter by name Ilini. Tangsu, far more powerful than even the Brahmavādins, espoused her (6). His son was the royal saint Surodha, who propagated religion, was Brahmavādhin, powerful and heroic. His wife was Upadānavi (7). She had four warrior sons. They were Dushmanta, Sushvanta, Pravira and Anagha (8).

The heroic Bharata was Dushmanta's son. (In his boyhood) he passed by the name of Sarvadamana, was high souled and gifted with the strength of ten million elephants (9). Noble Dushmanta begat on Sakuntalā a son by name Bharata who became Lord Paramount. From him you have all derived the name of Bhāratas (10). A voice from heaven spoke to the king Dushmanta. "The mother is only a leathern case. The son belongs to the father. He takes after him by whom he is begotten (11). O Dushmanta, take care of your son and do not disregard Sakuntalā. O king, son, born of a portion of the father, releases him from the abode of Death (12). Through you she has conceived. Sakuntalā has spoken the truth." As described by me before when the sons of the King Bharata were all destroyed by the anger of their mother, the great ascetic Bharadwāja, the son of Angira's son Vrihaspati, was chosen as a son of Bharata by Marutas, the presiding deities of Yajnas (13-14). This instance, of the Marutas assigning this duty to the intelligent Bharadwāja on behalf of Bharata, is often cited (15). Bharadwāja honored the Marutas with sacrifices, When the power of procreating sons was withdrawn from Bharata, Bharadwāja begat a son whose name was Vitatha. When his grandson Vitatha was born Bharata repaired to heaven (16-17).

Thereupon placing Vitatha on the throne Bharadwaja retired into woods. He again begat five sons - Suhotra, Suhota, Gaya, Garga and the high-souled Kapila. Suhotra had two sons (18-19), the highly powerful Kāshika and the king Gritsamati. The latter had sons amongst the Brāhmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas (20). Kāshika's sons were Kāsheya and Dirghatapā ; by the latter the learned Dhanwantari was begotten (21). Dhanwantari's son passed by the name of Ketuman. His son was the heroic king Bhimaratha. His son was the celebrated king of Bārānashi by name Divodāsa who slew all the Rāksasas (22-23). At this time, O king, a Rākshasa, by name Kshemaka, depopulated the city of Bāranashi for the high-souled and intelligent Nikumbha imprecated a curse against that city saying that it would be without any inhabitants for one thousand years. As soon as this curse was pronounced against the city of Bārānashi the king Divodāsa laid a most beautiful city on the bank of Gomati (24-25). Formerly the city of Bārānashi was in the possession of the ascetic king Bhadrasenya born in the race of Yadu. Having slain his hundred sons who were all excellent bowmen the king Divodāsa laid out his kingdom there (26-27). The heroic king Pratardanna Divodāsa's son. He had two sons, Vatsa and Bharga (28). Vatsa's son was Alarka from whom Sannatimān was born. Bhadrasenya's son, the high-souled Durdama was adopted by Haihaya as his son. He regained his anscestral kingdom that was forcibly invaded by Divodāsa. He was out of mercy spared by Divodāsa, who thought him a mere child (29-30). The king Ashtaratha was the son of Bhimaratha. By putting an end to hostilities that Kshatriya killed all the little boys of (Durdama). Alarka, the king of Kashi, was truthful and looked after the wellbeing of the Brahrnanas (31-32). That youthful and beautiful king ruled over his kingdom for sixty thousand and sixty hundred years (33). The king of Kashi was endued both with beauty and youth. By Lopamudra's favour he acquired a long life (34). After the termination of the curse that mighty-armed king slew the Rākshasa Kshemaka and laid out again the charming city at Bārānashi (35). The king Sunitha was Alarka's son. The highly illustrious Kshemya was Sunitha's son (36). Kshemya's son was Ketumān whose son was Varshaketu; the latter's son was the king Bibhu (37). Bibhu's son was Anartha from whom was born Sukumāra. His son was the mighty car-warrior, the highly energetic and pious king Satyaketu. From Vatsa his province was called Vatsa and from Bhārgava his province was name Bhārga. These were all born as the sons of Angiras in the Bhārgava race. O foremost of Bhāratas, they were Brāhamanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas (38-40).

Suhotra's son was Vrihat who had three sons, Ajamida, Dwimida and the energetic Purumida. Ajamida had three beautiful wives namely Nilini, Keshinā and the beautiful damsel Bhumini (41-42). Ajarnida begat the powerful Janhu on Keshni. He undertook the celebration of the great sacrifice Sarvamedha. Gangā solicited him to become her husband. But on his refusing to accept her proposals she flooded his sacrificial ground (43-44). O foremost of Bhāratas, beholding his sacrificial ground thus flooded by Gangā, Janhu, the slayer of enemies, grew enraged and said to her: -"O Ganga, I shall exhaust all your waters in the three worlds, by drinking them. You will pay then dearly for your arrogance" (45-46).

Beholding Ganga then drunk up by Janhu the high-souled Rishis made her his daughter by the name of Jānhavi (47), Janhu espoused Yuvanāshwa's daughter Kāveri. By imprecating a curse on her, Ganga afterwards converted one-half of her body into a river (48). Janhu's favourite son was the emperor Balākāshwa (49). He was very fond of hunting. His son was Kushika who grew up with the Panhavas in the forest (50). Kushika carried on hard austerities with the desire that he would obtain as powerful a son as Indra. Therefore Sakra, out of fear, took his birth as his son (51). Maghavān, born of his own accord in the race of Kushika, passed by the name of king Gādhi. His sons were Vishwāmitra, Vishwaratha, Viswajit and Viswakrit. O king, their youngest daughter was Satyavati. Richika begat Jamadagni on her (52-53). Vishwamitra's sons Devarāta and others are celebrated over the three worlds. Hear their names from me (54). Devashrava's son was Kati from whom the Kātyavanas received their name. Hiranyāksha was begotten on Shālāvati and Renumān on Renu (55). Besides, O king, there were Sangskritya, Galava and Moudgalya. The families of those high-souled Koushikas are still well-known (56). The Panis, Babhrus, Dhyanajāpyas, the king Devarāta and others, Satangkayana, Soushrava, Louhitya, Yāmadulā, Karishis and Sonshrutas were all descendants of Koushika. Besides there are Saindhavayanas and others. They contract matrimonial alliances amongst themselves according to the distinction of grades. O emperor, the alliance, between the Brāhmana saints Koushikas and the Pouravas is known as the intermarriage between the Brāhmanas and Kshatriyas. Amongst the sons of Viswāmitra Sunasepha was the eldest (57-60). Although born in, the race of Bhrigu, that foremost of Munis attained to the station of a Koushika. Viswāmitra had other sons too - Devarāta and others (61). Viswāmitra begat a son on Drishadvati by name Ashtaja whose son was Louha. I have thus described the progeny of Janhu (62).

O foremost of men, hear of the other sons of Ajāmida. He begat Sushanti on his wife Nilini (63). From Sushanti was born Purujāti from whom again was Vāhyāshwa. The latter had five sons resembling the immortals (64), They were Mudgala, the king Srinjaya, Vrihadishu, Yavanira and the powerful Krimitāshwa (65). We have heard that the five of them were capable of protecting their country - and they were the lords of the Panchāla Province consisting of prosperous villages (66). Because the five of them were capable of protecting their land therefore it is called Panchāla. Mudgala's sons were the highly illustrious Moudgalyas (67). They were all noble, twice-born and abided by the duties of Kshatriyas. The descendants of Kanwa and Mudgala took the side of Angiras (68). Mudgala's eldest son was the highly illustrious Brahmana saint Indrasena from whom was born Badhyashwa (69). He begat twins on Menakā; such we have heard. One of them was the royal saint Divodāsa and the other was the illustrious Ahalyā (70). Sharadvāna begat on Ahalyā the foremost of Rishis Shatanada. His son the highly illustrious Satyadhriti was a master of the science of archery. Seeing a nymph before him he was possessed by desire, the out-come of which was a twin. Going out a-hunting the king Shāntanu, out of mercy, took them up. Accordingly the son was named Kripa and the daughter Kripi, they are called Shāradwatas and known as Goutamas (71-74).

I shall now describe the progeny of Divodāsa. The saintly king Mitreyu was Divodāsa's son (75). From him branched off the Matrayani line and after him were named the Matreyas. These descendants of Bhrigu took the side of Kshretropota (76). The high-souled Srinjaya had a son by name Panchajana, whose son was the king Somadatta. His son was the highly illustrious Sahadwa whose son was the king Somaka (77-78). When the family was verging on extinction Somaka was again born of the twins of Ajamida. His son was Jantu who had a hundred sons (79). Of them the youngest was Prishata who was Drupada's father. Drupada's son was Dhaistadyumna whose son was Dhristaketu (80). These high-souled Somakās are known as Ajamidas. And the sons of the high-souled Ajamida became known by the name of Somakas (81).

O king, the mother of your fore-fathers, Dhumini, desirous of having sons, was the third queen of Ajamida (82). That lady, ever observant of vows, practised, for having a son, hard austerities which it is difficult for women to perform, extending over a million of years (83). O Janamejaya, living on pure and restricted fare, offering duly oblation to fire she used to lie down on Kusa grass intended for fire-worship. Ajamida knew the lady Dhumini and she gave birth to a smoky coloured beautiful son by name Riksha. From him was born Samvarana who again begat Kuru, who passing by Prāyaga, laid out the city of Kurukshetra (84-85). After that high-minded king had carried on penances for many thousand years and cultivated that holy and charming province resorted to by the pious, Sakra conferred on him a boon. His family was highly great from whom the Kouravas received their appellation (86-87). Kuru had four sons, namely, Sudhanwa, Sudhana, the mighty armed Parikshit and Pravara at whose name the enemies used to tremble (88). Sudhanwa's son was the intelligent Suhotra. His son was Chyavana who was well read in the Vedas and other scriptures (89). Chyavana's son was Krityajna. Celebrating many sacrifices that pious king begat a son equal to Indra in glory (90). He was Vasu the king of Chedis who could range in the sky and move about in the air. He begat on Girika seven sons (91). They were the mighty car-warrior Vrihadratha the king of Magadha, Prityagraha, Kusha, who passed by the name of Manivahana, Maruta, Yadu the fish Kāli and Sattama. Vrihadratha's son was known by the name of Kushāgra (92-93), His son was the learned and powerful Brishabha whose son was the pious Puspavāri. His powerful son passed by the name of king Satyatulā (94-95). His son was the virtuous souled Urja whose son was Sambhava. A powerful son was born to Sambhava in two portions which were sewed up by Jarā. And this son was accordingly named Jarāsandha (96-97). That highly powerful Jarāsandha defeated all the Kshatrivas. His son was the powerful Sahadeva (98). His son was the beautiful and highly illustrious Udayu who begat a highly pious son (99). His name was Srutadharmā who lived in the country of Magadha. Parikshita's son was the pious Janamejaya (100). He had three sons who were all mighty car-warriors ; they were Srutasena, Ugrasena and Bhimasena (101). They were all highly prosperous, powerful and brave. Besides these three sons Janamejaya begat on Manimati another two who were named Suratha and Matimān (102). Suratha's son was the powerful Viduratha whose son was the mighty car-warrior Riksha (103). Though he was the second Riksha he was illustrious like the first. O king, in your family were born two Rikshas, two Parikshits, three Bhimasenas and two Janamejayas. Riksha the second had a son by name Bhimasena whose son was Pratipa. His sons were Shāntanu, Devapi and Vālhika who were all mighty car-warriors (104-106).

O king, the family, in which you have been born, is Shāntanu's family. O king, Valhika had seven kingdoms (107). Valhika's son was the highly illustrious Somadatta whose sons were Bhuri, Bhurishrava and Shala (108). The ascetic Devapi was the priest of the gods. He was the favourite son of the high-souled Chyavana (109). The king Shantanu was the foremost of the Kuru kings. The family in which, O great king, you have been born as Shāntanu's race (110). He begat on Gangā a son by name Devavrata. He was celebrated by the name of Bhisima the grand-father of the Pāndavas (111). Kali (Satyavati) gave birth to Vichitravirya who was the most favourite, virtuous-souled and sinless son of Shāntanu (112). Krishnadwaipāyana begat on Vichitravirya's wife Dhritarāstra, Pāndu and Vidura. Dhritarastra begat on Gāndhāri a hundred sons, of whom Duryodhana was the eldest and became king (113-114). Pāndu's son was Dhananjaya whose son was Abhimanyu who was given birth to by Subhadrā. O king, your father Parikshit is Abhimanyu's son (115). O king, such is the account of the Puru race in which you have been born. I shall presently describe the families of Turvasu, Drahyu, Puru and Yadu (116). Turvasu's son was Vanhi, whose son was Gobhānu, whose son was the irrepressible king Traisānu. His son was Karandhama whose son was Marutha. I have mentioned before the name of another Marutta who was the son of Avikshit. This king Marutta had no issue and accordingly he celebrated many Yajnas accompanied with propuse presents. O king, he had a daughter by name Sarmatā. He made a gift of her to the high-souled Samvarta. Afterwards he obtained the sinless Puru king Dushmanta as his son (117-120).

O foremost of kings, thus on account of Yayāti's curse and of his transferring of his decrepitude Turvasu's line became identified with that of Kurus. Dushmanta's son was the king Karuthāma whose son was Akrida. He (again) had four sons whose names were Pāndya, Kerala, Kola and Chola. Their prosperous territories were respectively named Pandya, Chola and Kerala. O king, Drahyu's sons were Babhru and Setu. Setu's son was Angāra who was also known as lord of Maruts. That powerful king was slain, with difficulty, by Youvānāshwa in battle. He fought with him a dreadful combat for fourteen months (121-125). The king Gāndhāra was Angāra's son, after whose name the celebrated Gāndhāra kingdom still passes. The horses of that province are the best of their kind. Anu's son was Dharma whose son was Ghrita. Ghrita begat Duduha whose son was Prachetā. Suchetā was Prachetā's son. I have thus described the family of Anu. Hear, I shall now describe at length the most excellent and powerful family of the eldest Yadu (126-129).


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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அங்கிரஸ் அசமஞ்சன் அதிதி அதிரதன் அநிருத்தன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அருந்ததி அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜபார்ஷன் அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆரியா தேவி ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உபரிசரவசு உமை உல்பணன் உஷை ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டூகன் கதன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குணவதி கும்பாண்டன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் கைடபன் கோடவி சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்ணன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்யபாமா சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரவதி சந்திரன் சம்பரன் சரஸ்வதி சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாந்தீபனி சாம்பன் சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திரலேகை சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுக்ரன் சுசீமுகி சுநாபன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் சௌதி தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதி திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நந்தி நரகாசுரன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பத்ரன் பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பலி பாணன் பார்வதி பானு பானுமதி பிரதீபன் பிரத்யும்னன் பிரபாவதி பிரமர்த்தனன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரவரன் பிரஸேனன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மனு மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மாயாவதி மார்க்கண்டேயர் முசுகுந்தன் முரு முருகன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வராகம் வருணன் வஜ்ரநாபன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாமனன் வாயு விகத்ரு விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விப்ருது வியாசர் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜயந்தன் ஜராசந்தன் ஜனமேஜயன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஜ்வரம் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஸ்வேதகர்ணன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு