Sunday, 22 March 2020




Janamejaya said:—O you highly intelligent twice-born one, you should enumerate the Yugas and mention the extent of Brahmā's day (1).

Vaishampāyana said:—O subduer of enemies, hear, I shall enumerate the days of Brahmā by the same calculation by which men make divisions of day and night (2). Five Nimeshas make one Kāstha, thirty Kāshthas make one Kalā and thirty Kalās make one Muhurtta. And the intelligent consider thirty Muhurttas constituting one day and night comprising the motion of the sun and moon. Such days and nights daily take place in all the countries around the mount Meru (3–4). Fifteen days and nights make one Paksha (fortnight); two fortnights make one month—two months make one Ritu (season) (5). Three Ritus make one Ayana and two Ayanas make one year. Those, conversant with the science of enumeration, divide Ayana (course) into two—northern and southern (6). Those, who have mastered (the various divisions of) time, consider a month, consisting of two fort-nights, as the one day and night of the ancestral manes (7). The dark-half of the month is their day and the light half is their night. Therefore, O king, Srādhas, for the departed manes, are performed in the dark half of the month (8). That which is considered as a Samvatsara (year) for human beings is a day and night for the celestials. Of them the northern course is considered by the learned as their day and the southern course as their night (9). When a celestial year is multiplied ten-fold it is considered as one day and night of Manu. A day and a night, when multiplied ten-fold, constitute one Paksha (fortnight) of Manu (10). A Paksha, when multiplied tenfold, forms one month; and twelve months are regarded by the wise, discriminating truth, as forming a season of Manu. Three Ritus (seasons) make one Ayana and two Ayanas make one Samvatsara (year) (11). Their four thousand years constitute the extent of Krita Yuga (golden age). O king, four hundred years form the Sandhyā[1] and four hundred such form the Sandhyāngsha[2] (12). The extent of the Treta Yuga is three thousand years. Its Sandhyā and Sandhyāngsha severally extend over three hundred years (13). It is said that the duration of Dwāpara Yuga is two thousand years. Its Sandhyā and Sandhyāngsha are said to extend each over two hundred years (14). The wise have enumerated the duration of Kali Yuga as extending over a thousand years. Its Sandhyā and Sandhyāngsha too extend over one hundred years each (15). 

[1] The period that elapses between the expiration of one Yuga or age and the commencement of another.

[2] The period at the end of each Yuga.

I have thus described the extent of Yugas comprising twelve thousand years. Hear, from me, the enumeration of Yugas measured by celestial Ayanas (16). Krita, Treta, Dwāpara and Kali these are the four Yugas. O foremost of kings, with such seventy-one Yugas one Manwantara is completed. So is said by those who are versed in the science of enumeration. The Ayana, that has been mentioned before, is two-fold, northern and southern (17–18). When one Manu disappears his Ayana is completed, and then another reigns. In this way when many a Manu rise and disappear one Samvatsara of Brahmā is completed. His one Samvatsara has been described by the truth-observing ascetics as consisting of one million of years (19–20). Brahmā's one day is said to be tantamount to one Kalpa. The earth, with her mountains, woods, and forests, sinks into water in the night which is enumerated by the wise as extending over a thousand Yugas. O foremost of Bharatas, at the completion of that one thousand Yugas, Brahmā's one day is completed and the termination of a Kalpa is said to be brought about. I have thus described to you the preceding seventy Yugas (21–23). Krita, Tretā and other Yugas are said to constitute one Manwantara. I have also described to you fourteen Manus, enhancing their (own) glory (24). O king, all these patriarchs were masters of the Vedas and Puranas. Even the chanting of their glories is crowned with success (25). At the termination of a Manwantara sets in the dissolution (of the universe) after which again begins the work of creation. Even with hundred years I cannot enumerate this period (26), O foremost of Bharatas, during these Man wantaras, the termination of the creation and destruction of creatures is brought about. This I have heard (27). At that time there exist the gods with gross and subtle elements and the seven Rishis, who carry on penances, lead a life of celibacy and are endued with the knowledge of scriptures (28). One Kalpa terminates with the completion of a thousand Yugas. Then scorched by the rays of the sun, all the creatures, placing the lord Brahmā before them, and accompanied by the Adityas, approached the omnipotent lord Nārāyana, the foremost of gods, ever engaged in Yoga, the master of Yogins, unborn, eternal, the soul of all, who repeatedly engenders all creatures at various Kalpas. He is the unseen and eternal God to whom belongs the whole universe (29–31). Then there sets in night when all are converted into one ocean. They all sleep in the belly of Nārāyana for one thousand years of Brahmā (32). That extent of time goes by the name of night when the Grandfather (Brahmā) enters upon the Yoga of sleep (33). After the expiration of that night extending over a thousand Yugas awakes the Divine Brahmā, the Grand-father of all (34). Desirous of engendering progeny again he sets his mind on the work of creation. There comes into existence the same ancient recollection, the same character, the same energy for action, the same abode for the gods, but only a change in order of things takes place. O foremost of Bharatas, then are born again at the commencement of Yuga, the celestials saints, Yakshas, Gandharvas, Pishāchas, serpents and Rakshas, that had (before) been consumed by the rays of the sun (35–37). As the signs of various seasons are changed with the change of cycles, so the various orders of creations are metamorphosed in Brahmā's night (38). Having come out (of the lotus navel of Nārāyana) Prajapati engages, for sooth, in the work of creation. O my child, O foremost of Bharatas, those gods, men and saints, who renouncing all attachment for the body, and being pure of mind, are united with Great Brahman, are never born in the next cycle (39–40). Having divided his own day into a thousand Yugas (cycles) and his night into an equal number of cycles in due order, the Divine Brahmā, the ordainer of all, well-versed in the enumeration of time, creates and destroys the creatures again and again (41–42). The Great God the Lord Nārāyana, Hari exists both in his subtle and gross form. I shall relate the history of Manu Vaivaswata born of a portion of his energy (43). O foremost of Bharatas, hear the ancient story of the highly effulgent Manu described incidentally along with the description of Vrishni race (44). Here the omnipotent, Great Lord, Hari was born for the destruction of all the demons and the behoof of all the worlds (45).

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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அசமஞ்சன் அதிரதன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உபரிசரவசு உல்பணன் ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டூகன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரன் சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாந்தீபனி சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நரகாசுரன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பார்வதி பிரதீபன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரஸேனன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மார்க்கண்டேயர் முசுகுந்தன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வருணன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாயு விகத்ரு விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜராசந்தன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு