Sunday 29 November 2020




Krishna and his family

Vaishampāyana said:—Having lost all control over himself and his movements for drinking Kadamvari wine and with his eyes reddened the highly beautiful Bala, of large arms pasted with sandal, began to sport with Revati (1). As the full moon shines in a cloud so clad in raiments black like clouds the divine Rāma, fair like the rays of the moon and with eyes rolling in intoxication, shone there (2). With Kundala on his left ear only and adorned with beautiful lotuses, the smiling Rāma attained to an excess of delight by repeatedly looking at the countenance of his beloved consort adorned with side-long looks (3).

Thereupon at the command of Keshava, the destroyer of Kansa and Nikumbha, the beautiful Apsaras approached the holder of ploughshare prosperous like heaven itself for beholding Revati and Rāma (4). Those beautiful-bodied Apsaras, endued with charming physical frames, saluted Revati and Rāma and began to dance in accompaniment with time. And some of them sang with gestures expressive of every sort of emotion (5). According to the command of Baladeva and the daughter of the Ravata king they began to display various gestures acquired by them as desired by the Yadavas (6). Having dressed themselves after the women of the country of the Yādavas those thin-built and beautiful damsels sang, in their language, songs set to thousands of tunes (7). O hero, before that assembly they sang various sacred themes conducive to the pleasure of Rāma and Keshava, such as the destruction of Kansa, Pralamva, and Chanura; the story of Janārddana's being tied to the mortar for which his glory was established by Yashodā and he obtained the name of Damodara; the destruction of Aristha and Dhenuka; his residence in Vraja; the destruction of Putana; his uprooting of the trees Yamala and Arjuna; his creation of wolves in time, the suppression of the wicked king of serpents Kalya by Krishna in the lake; the return of Madhusudana from that lake with lotuses, lilies, conches and Nidhis; the upholding of the mount Govardhana for the benefit of Gokula by Keshava, the source of well-being to the world; how Krishna cured the hump-backed woman, the seller of powdered scents; these accounts of the Lord shorn of birth and imperfections. The Apsaras also described how the Lord, though not a dwarf Himself, assumed the most wretched dwarfish form; how Soubha was slain; how Baladeva held up his ploughshare in all these battles; the destruction of other enemies of the gods; the battle with the proud kings at the time of the wedding of the Gāndhāra princess; the carrying away of Subhdrā; the battle with Vālāhaka and Jamvumāli; and how he carried away all the jewels in the very presence of Sakra after defeating him (8-14). O king, while those beautiful women were singing all these and various other themes pleasant and delightful to Sangkarshana and Adhokshaja, the highly beautiful Balarāma, drunk with Kadamvari wine, began to sing with his wife Revati accompanied with sweet clapping of hands (15-16). Beholding Rāma sing thus, the intelligent, high-souled and highly powerful Madhusudana, in order to please him, began to sing with Satya (17). The greatest hero of the world, Pārtha, who had come there for the sea-voyage, also delightedly joined the beautiful Subhadrā and Krishna in their singing (18). O king, the intelligent Gada, Sārana, Pradyumna, Shāmva, Satyaki and the son of Satyarjit, the greatly powerful Chārudeshna also sang there in a chorus. Rāma's sons, the greatest of heroes, the princes Nishatha and Ulmukha, the commander, Akrura, Sankha and other leading Bhaimas also sang there (19-20).

At that time, O king, by Krishna's power the boats increased in size and Janarddana sang to his best along with the leading Bhaimas (21). O heroic prince, when the immortal-like Yadu chiefs sang in this way the whole world was filled with joy and sins were dissipated (22). Thereupon for pleasing Keshava, the slayer of Madhu, Narada, the guest of the celestials, began to sing in such a way amongst the Yadavas that a portion of his matted hairs melted away (23). O prince, composing the songs there and then, that Muni, of immeasurable energy, sang them amongst the Bhaimas again and again with various gestures and motions (24). Thereupon beholding Baladeva, the daughter of the king Revata, Keshava, Pritha's son, Satyabhānā and Subhadrā, the intelligent Rishi smiled repeatedly (25). Although the wives of Keshava were patient by nature still the intelligent Nārada, ever fond of joking, with his gestures, smiles, motions and with various other means which could excite their laughter, made them laugh (26). As if instructed the Divine Muni Nārada sang various tunes high and low; and for pleasing Krishna he began to laugh aloud and shed tears of joy (27). O Prince, then the youthful damsels, conversant with gestures, gave away, at Krishna's command, the best jewels of the world, beautiful raiments, garlands made in heaven, Santānaka flowers, pearls and other flowers born in all seasons (28–29).

Thereupon after the termination of the musical soiree the Divine Krishna, holding the great and incomparable Muni Nārada, by the hand, jumped into the ocean with Satyabhāmā and Arjuna (30). Smiling a little the highly beautiful Krishna, of incomparable prowess, said to Sini's son—"Let us form ourselves into two parties and sport in the water of the ocean with the damsels. In this water of the ocean let Baladeva and Revati with my sons and some of the Bhaimas form one party and let the remaining Bhaimas and Bala's sons join my party" (31–32).

Afterwards the highly confident Keshava said to the ocean stationed before him with folded hands:—"Ocean, let your water be sweet and shorn of sharks (33). May your bed be adorned with jems and may your banks be worthy of a happy touch by the two feet. And may you, by my power, give all that you know of suited to the taste of mankind (34). May you give every sort of drink liked by people and may gentle fishes, adorned with gold, sapphires and pearls, range in your water (35). May you hold jems, and fragrant, charming and red lotuses and lilies of sweet touch and served by bees (36). May you hold numerous jars and golden vessels, from which the Bhaimas will drink, of Maireya, Mādhvika, and Asava wines (37). O ocean, be thou of cold water fragrant with the scent of flowers. Be thou so very careful that Yādavas with their women may not suffer any inconvenince (38)".

O king, having said this to the ocean Krishna began to sport with Arjuna. Satrajit’s daughter, well-read in hints given by Krishna, sprinkled water on Narada's body (39). Thereupon Rāma, his body reeling with intoxication, held lustfully, with his own hands, those of Revati and jumped sportively into the water of the ocean (40). Following Rāma the sportive sons of Krishna, with their eyes rolling in intoxication and the other leading Bhaimas, shorn of their unguents, raiments and ornaments, delightedly jumped into the ocean. Nishatha, Ulmuka and other sons of Baladeva with garlands of Santānaka flowers around their neck, clad in variegated raiments, drunk and bent on sporting, as well as the remaining Bhaimas joined Keshava's party (41-42). The powerful Yadavas, having beautiful marks and pastes on their persons, with watering vessels in their hands, began to sing songs of sweet tunes and beautifully suited for that place (43). Afterwards hundreds of well dressed damsels, fond of music, united with Apsarās living in the celestial region, began to play various notes (44). Those youthful damsels, conversant with playing instruments in the water of the etherial Ganges, and having their minds fully possessed by Cupid, delightedly played on Jaladaraura[1] and sang songs in accompaniment with it (45). At that time the beautiful celestial dancing girls, having eyes like lotus petals and adorned with lotus stalks, assumed the beauty of lotuses blown by the rays of the sun (46). O king, filled with the moon-like faces of those women appearing like hundreds of full moon, either going there of their own accord or under the decree of the Providence, the ocean appeared like the sky adorned with a thousand moons (47). O king, the cloud-like ocean was beautified with lighting like woman. The lord of waters appeared like clouds in the sky dispersed by lightning (48).

[1] A kind of musical instrument played in water.

Thereupon Nārāyana, who had put beautiful marks on his body, Nārada and other members of his party sprinkled water on Baladeva and his party who had also put on beautiful marks. And the latter also sprinkled water on the former (49). At that time the wives of Krishna and Sangkarshana, out of intoxication caused by Vāruni wine and worked up with music, delightedly threw water upon one another with hands and watering instruments (50). The Bhaimas, possessed by wine, Cupid and self-dignity, with eyes reddened with intoxication, threw water upon one another and in this way assumed harsh attitude before the very presence of the ladies: they did not desist although they sported for a long time (51).

Beholding thus their too much familiar intercourse, Krishna, the holder of discus, thought for a moment and then prevented them. He too, with Pārtha and Nārada, desisted from playing on instruments in the water (52). The Bhaimas, ever affording delight to their beloved women, although they were highly sensitive, at once understood Krishna’s intention as soon as he gave hints and desisted from playing in the water: but the damsels continued dancing (53). After the termination of the dancing party Upendra got upon the shore even while the other Yadavas were in the water. He then gave the best of Munis Nārada becoming unguents and afterwards himself partook of them (54). Then beholding Upendra get out of water the incomparable Bhaimas soon left the water. Then purifying their persons with unguents, they, with the permission of Krishna, retired to the drinking ground (55). Seated there in order according to their age and position those well-known heroes refreshed themselves with diverse edibles and drinks (56). Thereupon the cooks, with great pleasure, brought there cooked meat, vinegar, pomegranates and meat of beasts fried on iron rods (57). Then a young buffalo, well-roasted on a rod, hot, soaked in clarified butter, and mixed with vinegar, Sochal salt and acid, was served (58). Meat of many fat deer roasted according to the process of skillful cooking, and sweetened with vinegar was next brought (59). Legs of beasts, mixed with salt and mustard and fried in clarified butter were also served (60). The incomparable Yādavas, with great pleasure, partook of those dishes with the roots of Arum campanulatum, pomegranates, common citrons, asafaetida, gingerade and other fragrant vegetables. They then drank in beautiful cups (61). Encircled by their beloved damsels they drank various wines such as Maireya, Madhvika and Asava prepared from the meat of birds roasted on a rod with clarified butter, acid juice, salt and sourish articles (62). They also partook of other side dishes, various fragrant salted edibles of white and red colour, curd and preparations of clarified butter (63). O king, Uddhava, Bhoja, and other heroes, who did not drink, delightedly took vegetables, vegetable-curries, cakes, curd and pudding (64). From the drinking vessel named Pālavi, they drank various fragrant drinks, milk and butter with sugar and took various sorts of fruits (65). In this way the heroic Bhaimas were pleased with eating to their fill. Afterwards, they, having their wives as their companions, joined the music again with pleasure, initiated by their consorts (66).

Thereupon when the night set in the Divine Upendra asked all present in the party to go on with the song. Chhālikya of various tunes sung by the gods and Gandharvas (67). O king, then Narada began to play on his Vinā which with six scales and Ragas[2] brings about the concentration of mind, Krishna began to perform Hallishaka[3] accompanied with the music of his flute and Pārtha began to play on his Mridanga:[4] other leading Apsaras played on various other instruments. Thereupon after Asārita, the beautiful Rambhā, a clever actress, rose up, played and pleased Rāma and Keshava. Afterwards, O king, Urvashi, having beautiful and expansive eyes, Himā, Mishrakeshi, Tilottamā, Menakā and other celestial actresses rose up in order and pleased Hari with singing and dancing. Having his mind attracted by their charming singing and dancing Vāsudeva pleased them all with presents after their own heart. O prince, those honorable and leading Apsaras, who had been brought there, were honored with betel leaves at the desire of Krishna (68–72). O king, thus the various fragrant fruits and the song Chhālikya, which were brought from the celestial region out of Krishna's desire and his favour towards mankind, were known only to the intelligent son of Rukshmini. It was he who could use them: and it was he who distributed betel leaves at that time (73–74). The Chhālikya song, conducive to the well-being, nourishment, and prosperity of Nārāyana of glorious deeds, and which was great, auspicious and productive of fame and piety to mankind, was sung in chorus by Indra-like Krishna, Rāma, Pradyumna, Anuvindha and Shamva (75–76). This Chhalikya, which was sung there, was capable of bearing the axle of virtue and destructive of sorrow and sin. Repairing to the celestial region and hearing this Chhālikya song the illustrious king Revata regarded four thousand Yugas as one day. From it originated the various divisions of the Gandharvas as Kumarajati, &c., (77–78), O king, as hundreds of lights are produced by one light so various classes of Gandharvas have emanated from Chhālikya. O king, with Pradyumna and other leading Bhaimas Krishna and Nārada knew all this (79). Like unto streams and the water of the ocean people of this world knew Chhalikya only by illustration. It is possible to know the virtues and weight of the Himalaya but it is not so, without practising hard austerities to know the Murchanā[5] and time of Chhalikya (80–81). O king, what of Chhālikya with six scales and Ragas men, with great difficulty, cannot even come to the end of its eleventh division Sukumarajati. Know it for certain, O king, that the slayer of Madhu had so arranged that the gods, Gandharvas and great Rishis might attain to a devotional spirit on account of the virtues of Chhālikya (82–83). On account of its being sung by the god, amongst men, Krishna, before the Bhaimas for showing favour unto the world, Chhālikya, sung by the immortals only, attained to such a celebrity, that formerly on the occasion of a festivity Bhaima boys used to cite it as an example. And the elders used to approve of their saying and the boys, youths and old men used to sing it in a chorus. "Love is the test and not age"—to remind the mortals of this virtue of their own race, the heroic Yādavas, the ordainers of ancient religious rites, did so in the land of mortals. O king, friendship is known by love; therefore keeping love before them, the other Vrishnis, Andhakas and Dāsharhas, except Keshava, used to treat their own sons even as friends. Thereupon saluting the delighted Madhusudana, the slayer of Kansa, the contented Apsaras returned to the celestial region which too was (accordingly) filled with joy (84–88).

[2] A mode of music of which six are enumerated viz. Bhairava, Malava Saranga, Hindola, Vasanta, Dipaka and Megha: they are personified in poetry and mythology.

[3] A minor dramatic entertainment chiefly of singing and dancing by one male and eight or ten female performers, a ballet.

[4] A kind of musical instrument.

[5] A tone or semitone as placed in its scale, the seventh part of a Grama or scale.


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அக்ரூரன் அக்னி அங்கிரஸ் அசமஞ்சன் அதிதி அதிரதன் அநிருத்தன் அந்தகன் அரிஷ்டன் அருந்ததி அர்ஜுனன் அனு அஜபார்ஷன் அஜமீடன் அஸ்தி ஆபவர் ஆயு ஆரியா தேவி ஆஹுகன் இந்திரன் இளை உக்ரசேனன் உக்ராயுதன் உசீநரன் உதங்கர் உத்தவர் உபரிசரவசு உமை உல்பணன் உஷை ஊர்வசி ஊர்வர் ஏகலவ்யன் ஔர்வர் கக்ஷேயு கங்கை கசியபர் கண்டரீகர் கண்டாகர்ணன் கண்டூகன் கதன் கபிலர் கமலாதேவி கம்ஸன் கருடன் கர்க்கர் கர்ணன் காதி காந்திதேவி கார்த்தவீர்யார்ஜுனன் காலநேமி காலயவனன் காலவர் காளியன் கிருஷ்ணன் குசிகன் குணகன் குணவதி கும்பாண்டன் குரோஷ்டு குவலயாபீடம் குவலாஷ்வன் கூனி கைசிகன் கைடபன் கோடவி சகடாசுரன் சக்ரதேவன் சங்கன் சததன்வன் சத்யகர்ணன் சத்யகர்மன் சத்யபாமா சத்ருக்னன் சத்வதன் சந்தனு சந்திரவதி சந்திரன் சம்பரன் சரஸ்வதி சனத்குமாரர் சன்னதி சாணூரன் சாத்யகி சாந்தீபனி சாம்பன் சால்வன் சிசுபாலன் சித்திரலேகை சித்திராங்கதன் சிருகாலன் சிவன் சுக்ரன் சுசீமுகி சுநாபன் சுனீதன் சூரன் சூரியன் சைசிராயணர் சௌதி டிம்பகன் தக்ஷன் தசரதன் தந்தவக்ரன் தமகோஷன் தரதன் தன்வந்தரி தாரை திதி திதிக்ஷு திரிசங்கு திரிவிக்ரை திருமிலன் திரையாருணன் திலீபன் திவோதாஸன் துந்து துந்துமாரன் துருவன் துர்வாசர் துஷ்யந்தன் தூம்ரவர்ணன் தேவகன் தேவகி தேவாவ்ருதன் தேனுகன் நந்தன் நந்தி நரகாசுரன் நரசிம்மன் நஹுஷன் நாரதர் நாராயணன் நாராயணி நிகும்பன் நிசுந்தன் நித்ராதேவி நீபன் பஞ்சஜனன் பத்மாவதி பத்ரன் பப்ரு பயோதன் பரசுராமர் பரதன் பரத்வாஜர் பலராமன் பலி பாணன் பார்வதி பானு பானுமதி பிரதீபன் பிரத்யும்னன் பிரபாவதி பிரமர்த்தனன் பிரம்மதத்தன் பிரம்மன் பிரலம்பன் பிரவரன் பிரஸேனன் பிரஹலாதன் பிராசேதஸ் பிராப்தி பிருது பிருதை பிருஹதாஷ்வன் பிருஹஸ்பதி பீஷ்மகன் பீஷ்மர் புதன் புரூரவன் பூதனை பூமாதேவி பூரு பூஜனி பௌண்டரகன் மதிராதேவி மது மதுமதி மயன் மனு மஹாமாத்ரன் மாயாதேவி மாயாவதி மார்க்கண்டேயர் மித்ரஸஹர் முசுகுந்தன் முரு முருகன் முஷ்டிகன் யசோதை யது யயாதி யுதிஷ்டிரன் ரஜி ராமன் ருக்மவதி ருக்மி ருக்மிணி ரேவதி ரைவதன் ரோஹிணி லவணன் வசிஷ்டர் வராகம் வருணன் வஜ்ரநாபன் வஸு வஸுதேவன் வாமனன் வாயு விகத்ரு விசக்ரன் விதர்ப்பன் விப்ராஜன் விப்ருது வியாசர் விரஜை விருஷ்ணி விஷ்ணு விஷ்வாசி விஷ்வாமித்ரர் விஷ்வாவஸு விஸ்வகர்மன் வேனன் வைசம்பாயனர் வைவஸ்வத மனு ஜயந்தன் ஜராசந்தன் ஜனமேஜயன் ஜனார்த்தனன் ஜஹ்னு ஜாம்பவான் ஜியாமோகன் ஜ்வரம் ஸகரன் ஸத்யபாமா ஸத்யவிரதன் ஸத்ராஜித் ஸத்வான் ஸஹஸ்ரதன் ஸ்ரீதாமன் ஸ்ரீதேவ ஸ்வேதகர்ணன் ஹம்சன் ஹயக்ரீவன் ஹரி ஹரியஷ்வன் ஹரிஷ்சந்திரன் ஹிரண்யகசிபு ஹிரண்யாக்ஷன்